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  #421  
Old 06-15-2020, 12:38 PM
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https://www.wsj.com/articles/coronav...es-11592046000

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Coronavirus, Economic Toll Threaten to Worsen Black Mortality Rates
Financial stress, racial tensions undermine health of African-Americans; ’Four buses to get to work’
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The new coronavirus pandemic and its economic fallout threaten to exacerbate mortality rates for African-Americans, which have risen in recent years for blacks in middle age.

Blacks are dying at disproportionately high rates from the coronavirus, and their unemployment rate has tripled as a result of the pandemic. The financial stress, along with long-simmering racial tensions highlighted by the May 25 killing of George Floyd while in the custody of Minneapolis police, may compound factors that have been shown to worsen the health of African-Americans, according to health experts and researchers.

"I am concerned that given the current national climate we could see this trend of increasing mortality in middle-aged African-Americans continue," said Monica Webb Hooper, deputy director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, who has studied the issue.

Arline Geronimus, a professor of public health at the University of Michigan, said her research showed that blacks' shorter lifespan is partly due to a phenomenon she calls "weathering." Coping with financial strain, discrimination and barriers to good education sends stress hormones surging through the body that contribute to obesity, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, she said.

Economists have drawn attention to a rise in death rates among middle-aged whites that helped push down U.S. life expectancy during the last decade. Blacks near the same age have seen an equally sharp rise in mortality. Between 2012 and 2017, death rates for black Americans ages 25 to 44 rose 21%, federal figures show. The level is identical to the mortality increase for whites in that age group over that time.

That increase among blacks helped end more than a decade of progress on African-American mortality. Although black adults die at higher rates than whites and Hispanics, their mortality rate declined 22% between 2000 and 2012. The decline cut their death-rate gap with whites almost in half.

Sally Curtin, a statistician at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics, said that an increase in accidents including drug overdoses and traffic fatalities was a main driver of stalled mortality improvements among blacks aged 25 and over.

African-Americans also have seen small increases in age-adjusted death rates for Alzheimer's disease, strokes and suicide that started early in the last decade. Those trends were partially offset by lower death rates for cancer among blacks.

Heart disease and cancer, respectively, are the leading causes of death for both black and white Americans; those killers rank in the opposite order for Hispanics.

Assault including homicide is the seventh leading cause of death among blacks; it ranks 12th for Hispanics and 20th for whites. Death rates for assault among blacks have been rising since 2014 after almost a decade of leveling off.

More than 20,000 black Americans have died of Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, accounting for 23% of all U.S. deaths, while African-Americans make up 12.5% of the population, according to NCHS. Black Americans are more likely to have chronic health conditions, reside in densely populated areas and live in multigenerational households -- all of which make them more susceptible to the virus, researchers say.

A black person born around 2017 on average will live 3.6 years less than whites and 6.9 years less than Hispanics, according to the most recent NCHS statistics.


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Old 06-19-2020, 09:45 AM
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UNITED STATES
SUICIDE
https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db362.htm

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Increase in Suicide Mortality in the United States, 1999–2018


Key findings
Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality

From 1999 through 2018, the suicide rate increased 35%, from 10.5 per 100,000 to 14.2.
The rate increased on average approximately 1% per year from 1999 to 2006 and by 2% per year from 2006 through 2018.
In 2018, the suicide rate for males was 3.7 times the rate for females (22.8 and 6.2, respectively).
From 1999 through 2018, suicide rates among females were highest for those aged 45–64; among males, the rates were highest for those aged 75 and over.
In 2018, suicide rates were higher in the most rural counties compared with the most urban counties for both males and females.
Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death for all ages in the United States (1). Suicide is a major contributor to premature mortality as it ranks as the second leading cause of death for ages 10–34 and the fourth leading cause for ages 35–54 (1). Despite national goals to lower the suicide rate (2), several recent reports have documented a steady increase in suicide rates in recent years (3–6). This data brief uses final mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) to update trends in suicide rates from 1999 through 2018 and to describe differences by sex, age group, and urbanicity of county of residence.
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Old 06-23-2020, 01:42 PM
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https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2.../16/1918455117

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The 10 factors associated with the greatest risk of mortality over the study period were current or previous history as a smoker (HR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.70, 2.14 and HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.22, 1.43, respectively), history of divorce (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.60), history of alcohol abuse (HR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.61), recent financial difficulties (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.22, 1.43), history of unemployment (HR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.59), lower life satisfaction (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.45), never married (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.63), history of food stamps (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.49), and negative affectivity (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.33). Of the 57 predictors, 42 had confidence intervals that did not include 1, substantiating many previous a priori studies on these individual factors.
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